Chapter 1

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About the Presentations  The presentations cover the objectives found in the opening of each chapter.  All chapter objectives are listed in the beginning of each presentation.  You may customize the presentations to fit your class needs.  Some figures from the chapters are included. A complete set of images from the book can be found on the Instructor Resources disc.

FIREWALLS & NETWORK SECURITY with Intrusion Detection and VPNs, 2nd Edition Chapter 1 Introduction to Information Security

Learning Objectives Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to:  Explain the relationship among the component parts of information security, especially network security  Define the key terms and critical concepts of information and network security  Describe the organizational roles of information and network security professionals  Understand the business need for information and network security  Identify the threats posed to information and network security, as well as the common attacks associated with those threats  Differentiate threats to information within systems from attacks against information within systems

Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Introduction  Firewalls and network security are critical components in securing day-to-day operations of nearly every organization in business today  Before learning to plan, design, and implement firewalls and network security, it is important to understand the larger topic of information security and how these two components fit into it

Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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What Is Information Security?  Information security (InfoSec) is defined by standards published by CNSS as the protection of information and its critical elements, including the systems and hardware that use, store, and transmit that information  To protect information and related systems, organizations must implement policy, awareness training and education, and technology

Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Figure 1-1 Components of Information Security

Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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What is Information Security? (continued)  C.I.A. triangle consists of Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability  List of characteristics has expanded over time, but these three remain central  Successful organization maintains multiple layers of security: – – – – –

Network security Physical security Personal security Operations security Communications security

Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Critical Characteristics of Information  Availability enables authorized users to access information without interference or obstruction and to receive it in required format  Accuracy means information is free from error and has the value the end user expects  Authenticity is quality or state of being genuine or original, rather than reproduced or fabricated; information is authentic when it is what was originally created, placed, stored, or transferred

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Critical Characteristics of Information (continued)  Confidentiality is when information is protected from exposure to unauthorized entities  Integrity is when information remains whole, complete, and uncorrupted  Utility of information is quality or state of having value for some end purpose; information must be in a format meaningful to end user  Possession is ownership or control of some object or item; information is in one’s possession if one obtains it, independent of format or other characteristics Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Figure 1-2 The CIA Triad and the McCumber Cube

Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Securing Components  When computer is subject of an attack, it is used as active tool to conduct attack  When computer is object of an attack, it is entity being attacked  Direct attack is when hacker uses a computer to break into a system  Indirect attack is when a system is compromised and used to attack other systems, such as a botnet or other distributed denial-ofservice attack Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Figure 1-3 Computer as the Subject and Object of an Attack

Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Balancing Information Access and Security  Information security cannot be an absolute; it is a process, not a goal  Information security should balance protection and availability  To achieve balance—to operate information system to satisfaction of users and security professionals—level of security must allow reasonable access, yet protect against threats

Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Balancing Information Access and Security (continued)

Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Business Needs First Information security performs four important organizational functions:  Protects organization’s ability to function  Enables safe operation of applications implemented on organization’s IT systems  Protects data the organization collects and uses  Safeguards technology assets in use at the organization

Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Security Professionals and the Organization  Chief Information Officer – Senior technology officer – Primarily responsible for advising senior executive(s) for strategic planning

 Chief Information Security Officer – Individual primarily responsible for assessment, management, and implementation of securing information in the organization – May also be referred to as Manager for Security, Security Administrator, or a similar title Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Security Professionals and the Organization (continued) Information security project team should consist of individuals experienced in one or more facets of vast array of technical and nontechnical areas: Champion Team leader Security policy developers Risk assessment specialists Security professionals System, network, and storage administrators End users Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Data Ownership  Data owner: responsible for the security and use of a particular set of information  Data custodian: responsible for the storage, maintenance, and protection of the information  Data users: the end systems users who work with the information to perform their daily jobs supporting the mission of the organization

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Threats Sun Tzu Wu:  “If you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the result of a hundred battles.  If you know yourself but not the enemy, for every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat.  If you know neither the enemy nor yourself, you will succumb in every battle.”

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Threats (continued)  To make sound decisions about information security, management must be informed about the various threats facing the organization, its people, applications, data, and information systems—that is, the enemy  In the context of information security, a threat is an object, person, or other entity that represents a constant danger to an asset

Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Threats (continued)

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Human Error or Failure  Includes acts done without malicious intent  Caused by: inexperience, improper training, incorrect assumptions, and other circumstances  Employees are greatest threats to information security—closest to organizational data  Employee mistakes can easily lead to: – – – – –

Revelation of classified data Entry of erroneous data Accidental deletion or modification of data Storage of data in unprotected areas Failure to protect information

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Human Error or Failure (continued)  Many of these can be prevented with controls

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Figure 1-5 Human Error or Failure

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Compromises to Intellectual Property  Intellectual property is “the ownership of ideas and control over the tangible or virtual representation of those ideas”  Many organizations create intellectual property— trade secrets, copyrights, trademarks, patents  Most common IP breach is software piracy  Watchdog organizations that investigate include: – Software & Information Industry Association (SIIA) – Business Software Alliance (BSA)

Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Compromises to Intellectual Property (continued)  Copyright enforcement is attempted with technical security mechanisms and online registration

Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Espionage or Trespass  Category of activities that breach confidentiality  Unauthorized accessing of information  Competitive intelligence vs. espionage  Shoulder surfing can occur any place a person is accessing confidential information  Controls are implemented to mark the boundaries of an organization’s virtual territory, giving notice to trespassers that they are encroaching on the organization’s cyberspace

Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Espionage or Trespass (continued)  Hackers use skill, guile, or fraud to steal the property of someone else

Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Figure 1-6 Shoulder Surfing

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Figure 1-7 Hacker Profiles

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Espionage or Trespass (continued)  Generally two skill levels among hackers: – Expert hacker • Develops software scripts and codes exploits • Usually a master of many skills • Often creates attack software to share with others

– Unskilled hackers (script kiddies) • Hackers of limited skill • Use expert-written software to exploit a system • Do not usually fully understand systems they hack

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Espionage or Trespass (continued)  Other terms for system rule breakers: – Cracker: “cracks” or removes protection designed to prevent unauthorized duplication – Phreaker: hacks the public telephone network

Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Information Extortion  Information extortion is an attacker or formerly trusted insider stealing information from a computer system and demanding compensation for its return or non-use  Extortion found in credit card number theft

Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Sabotage or Vandalism  Individual or group who wants to deliberately sabotage operations of a computer system or business or perform acts of vandalism to either destroy an asset or damage image of the organization  Threats can range from petty vandalism to organized sabotage  Organizations rely on image so Web defacing can lead to dropping consumer confidence and sales  Rising threat of hacktivist or cyber-activist operations; most extreme version is cyberterrorism Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Theft  Illegal taking of another’s property—physical, electronic, or intellectual  Value of information suffers when it is copied and taken away without the owner’s knowledge  Physical theft can be controlled—wide variety of measures used from locked doors to guards or alarm systems  Electronic theft is more complex problem to manage and control; organizations may not even know it has occurred Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Software Attacks  When an individual or group designs software to attack systems, they create malicious code called malware  Designed to damage, destroy, or deny service to target systems  Includes: – – – – – –

Virus (macro virus or boot virus ) Worms Trojan horses Back door or trap door Polymorphic Virus and worm “hoaxes”

Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Figure 1-8 Trojan Horse Attack

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Forces of Nature  Forces of nature, force majeure, or acts of God are dangerous because they are unexpected and can occur with very little warning  Can disrupt not only the lives of individuals, but also the storage, transmission, and use of information  Include fire, flood, earthquake, and lightning as well as electrostatic discharge  Since it is not possible to avoid many of these threats, management must implement controls to limit damage and also prepare contingency plans for continued operations Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Deviations in Quality of Service  Situations of product or services not delivered as expected  Information system depends on many interdependent support systems  Service issues that dramatically affect the availability of information and systems include: – Internet service – Communications service – Power irregularities

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Internet Service Issues  Loss of Internet service can lead to considerable loss in availability of information since organizations have customer sales staff and telecommuters working at remote locations  When an organization outsources its Web servers, outsourcer assumes responsibility for all Internet services as well as for hardware and operating system software used to operate the Web site

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Communications and Other Service Provider Issues  Other utility services have potential impact  Among these are: – – – – – –

Telephone Water & wastewater Trash pickup Cable television Natural or propane gas Custodial services

 The threat of loss of services can lead to inability to function properly Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Power Irregularities  Power irregularities are common and lead to fluctuations such as: – – – – – –

Spike: momentary increase Surge: prolonged increase Sag: momentary low voltage Brownout: prolonged drop Fault: momentary loss of power Blackout: prolonged loss

 Electronic equipment is susceptible to fluctuations; controls can be applied to manage power quality Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Hardware Failures or Errors  Technical hardware failures or errors occur when manufacturer distributes to users equipment containing flaws  These defects can cause system to perform outside of expected parameters, resulting in unreliable service or lack of availability  Some errors are terminal, in that they result in unrecoverable loss of equipment; some errors are intermittent, in that they only periodically manifest, resulting in faults that are not easily repeated Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Software Failures or Errors  This category of threats comes from purchasing software with unrevealed faults  Large quantities of computer code are written, debugged, published, and sold only to determine that not all bugs were resolved  Sometimes, unique combinations of certain software and hardware reveal new bugs  Sometimes, these items aren’t errors, but are purposeful shortcuts left by programmers for honest or dishonest reasons Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Obsolescence  When infrastructure becomes antiquated or outdated, it leads to unreliable and untrustworthy systems  Management must recognize that when technology becomes outdated, there is a risk of loss of data integrity to threats and attacks  Ideally, proper planning by management should prevent risks from technology obsolesce, but when obsolescence is identified, management must take action

Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Attacks  An attack is a deliberate act that exploits vulnerability  Accomplished by threat agent to damage or steal organization’s information or physical asset – Exploit is a technique to compromise a system – Vulnerability is an identified weakness of a controlled system whose controls are not present or are no longer effective – Attack is the use of an exploit to achieve the compromise of a controlled system Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Malicious Code  This kind of attack includes the execution of viruses, worms, Trojan horses, and active Web scripts with the intent to destroy or steal information  The state of the art in attacking systems is the multi-vector worm using up to six attack vectors to exploit a variety of vulnerabilities in commonly found information system devices

Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Table 1-2 Attack Replication Vectors

New Table

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Attack Descriptions  “Hoaxes”: a more devious approach to attacking computer systems is transmission of a virus hoax, with a real virus attached  Back doors: using a known or previously unknown and newly discovered access mechanism, an attacker can gain access to a system or network resource  Password crack: attempting to reverse calculate a password

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Attack Descriptions (continued)  Brute force: the application of computing and network resources to try every possible combination of options of a password  Dictionary: the dictionary password attack narrows the field by selecting specific accounts to attack and uses a list of commonly used passwords (the dictionary) to guide guesses

Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Attack Descriptions (continued)  Denial-of-service (DoS): attacker sends a large number of connection or information requests to a target; so many requests are made that the target system cannot handle them successfully along with other, legitimate requests for service – May result in a system crash or merely an inability to perform ordinary functions

 Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS): attack in which a coordinated stream of requests is launched against a target from many locations at the same time Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Figure 1-9 Denial-of-Service Attacks

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Attack Descriptions (continued)  Spoofing: technique used to gain unauthorized access whereby the intruder sends messages to a computer with an IP address indicating that the message is coming from a trusted host  Man-in-the-Middle: in this attack, an attacker sniffs packets from the network, modifies them, and inserts them back into the network; also called TCP hijacking  Spam: unsolicited commercial e-mail; while many consider spam a nuisance rather than an attack, it is emerging as a vector for some attacks Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Figure 1-10 IP Spoofing

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Figure 1-11 Man-in-the-Middle

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Attack Descriptions (continued)  Mail-bombing: another form of e-mail attack that is also a DoS, in which an attacker routes large quantities of e-mail to the target  Sniffer: program and/or device that can monitor data traveling over a network; can be used for both legitimate network management and for stealing information from a network  Social engineering: within the context of information security, the process of using social skills to convince people to reveal access credentials or other valuable information Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Figure 1-12 The Nigerian National Petroleum Company

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Attack Descriptions (continued)  “People are the weakest link. You can have the best technology; firewalls, intrusion-detection systems, biometric devices ... and somebody can call an unsuspecting employee. That's all she wrote, baby. They got everything.”  “Brick attack”: the best configured firewall in the world can’t stand up to a well-placed brick

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Attack Descriptions (continued)  Buffer overflow: application error occurs when more data is sent to buffer than it can handle; when buffer overflows, attacker can make target system execute instructions or attacker can take advantage of some other unintended consequence of the failure  Timing attack: relatively new, works by exploring contents of Web browser’s cache; can allow collection of information on access to passwordprotected sites – Another attack by the same name involves attempting to intercept cryptographic elements to determine keys and encryption algorithms Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Chapter Summary  Firewalls and network security are essential components for securing systems that businesses use to run day-to-day operations  Information security is protection of information and its critical elements, including systems and hardware that use, store, and transmit that data  C.I.A. triangle based on confidentiality, integrity, availability of info and systems that process it  CNSS Security model (McCumber Cube) provides graphical description of approach used in computer and information security Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Chapter Summary (continued)  Computer can be subject of attack or object of attack; two types of attacks: direct and indirect  Information security not an absolute: a process, not a goal; should balance reasonable access and availability while protecting against threats  Information security performs four functions: – Protects organization’s ability to function – Enables safe operation of applications implemented on organization’s IT systems – Protects data that organization collects and uses – Safeguards technology assets of organization Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Chapter Summary (continued)  Requires wide range of professionals and skill sets to support information security program  Information security project team includes: team leader, security policy developers, risk assessment specialists, security professionals, systems, network and storage administrators, and end users  Three types of data ownership: data owner, data custodian, and data user  Threat is object, person, or other entity that represents a constant danger to assets Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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Chapter Summary (continued)  Attack is deliberate act or action that takes advantage of vulnerability to compromise controlled system  Vulnerability is identified weakness in controlled system  Major types of attacks include: malicious code, “hoaxes” of malicious code, back doors, password cracking, DoS, DDoS, spoofing, manin-the-middle, spam, mail bombing, sniffers, social engineering, buffer overflow, and timing attacks Firewalls & Network Security, 2nd ed. - Chapter 1

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