Influenza: epidemiology, prevention and control

May 30, 2018 | Author: Anonymous | Category: N/A
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Influenza: epidemiology, prevention and control Tom D. Y. Chin, MD. MPH Department of Preventive Medicine and of Medicine University of Kansas Medical Center

Importance of Influenza • One of the most important Emerging and Reemerging infectious diseases • Causes high morbidity and mortality in communities (epidemic) and worldwide (pandemic) • Epidemics are associated with excess mortality

Leading Causes of Deaths in the US • • • •

Heart Disease Cancer CVD Chr Obst Lung Dis • Accidents

• Pneumonia & Influenza • Diabetes Mellitus • HIV • Suicide • Homicide

Leading Causes of Deaths in the US • • • •

Heart Disease Cancer CVD Chr Obst Lung Dis • Accidents

• Pneumonia & Influenza • Diabetes Mellitus • HIV • Suicide • Homicide

Characteristics of Influenza Virus • • • • • •

Types A, B, C Diameter 80 - 120 nm Pleomorphic, spherical, filamentous particles Single-stranded RNA Segmented genome, 8 segments in A and B Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase on surface of virion

Causative Agent of Influenza • Caused by a virus belonging to the MYXOVIRUS group which comprises of Orthomyxovirus and Paramyxovirus • Influenza virus is an Orthomyxovirus

Classification of Influenza virus • Classified on the basis of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) • 15 subtypes of HA and 9 subtypes of NA are known to exist in animals (HA 1-15, NA 1-9) • 3 subtypes of HA (1-3) and 2 subtypes of NA (1-2) are human influenza viruses. HA 5, 7, 9 and NA 7 can also infect humans

Discovery of Influenza Virus • First isolated from a pig in 1931 (swine flu) • Isolated from human in 1933

Nomenclature of Human Influenza Virus Type A

Subtype H1N1


H2N2 H3N2 None None

Prototype A/PR/8/34 A/NJ/8/76 A/JP/305/57 A/HK/1/68 B/Lee/40 C/Taylor/47

Mode of Transmission In Human • The virus is spread from person- toperson through respiratory secretions either as droplets (close contact) or as airborne infection by droplet nuclei suspended in the air. • Incubation period 1-3 days

Clinical Manifestations • Influenza is an acute respiratory illness characterized by fever, headache, myalgia, coryza, sore throat and cough. Cough is frequently severe and protracted. • Duration of illness is usually 2-7 days.

Clinical Diagnosis • The clinical picture of influenza is nonspecific. • Influenza-like illness can be caused by many microbial agents other than influenzavirus, such as adenovirus, parainfluenza viruses, coronavirus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, beta-hemolytic streptococcus.

Laboratory Diagnosis • Since the clinical picture of influenza is nonspecific, its specific diagnosis must be confirmed by laboratory tests. • This is usually made by virus isolation, identification of specific antigens or antibody rise.

Antigenic Variation Influenza viruses tend to undergo changes from time to time. There are two types of changes: (1) antigenic shift, (2) antigenic drift. These changes in the antigenic characteristics of influenza viruses determine the extent and severity of influenza epidemics

Antigenic Shift • This term denotes MAJOR changes in hemagglutinin and neuraminidase resulting from reassortment of gene segments involving two different influenza viruses. • When this occurs, worldwide epidemics may be the consequence since the entire population is susceptible to the virus.

Pandemic Influenza Viruses Pandemic 1889 1899 1918 1957 1968 1977

Subtype H2N? H3N8 H1N1 H2N2 H3N2 H1N1

Antigenic Drift • This term denotes MINOR changes in hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of influenza virus. • This results from mutation in the RNA segments coding for either the HA or NA • This involves no change in serotype; there is merely an alteration in amino acid sequence of HA or NA leading to change in antigenicity.

Influenza A (H3N2) Variants • • • • •

A/Port Chalmer/73 A/Victoria/3/75 A/Texas/1/77 A/Bangkok/79 A/Philippines/2/82

Influenza A Epidemic Excess Mortality, US A/Japan/57 (H2N2)



A/Japan/62 (H2N2



A/HK/68 (H3N2)



A/England/72 1972-73 (H3N2)


Death Rates of Persons with ARI during Influenza Epidemics, Houston, 1978-1981 5


Rate/10 /Yr



Hospitalization Rates for ARI during Influenza Epidemic, Houston, 1980-81 Age 65

Rate/10,000 73.4 35.4 7.4 5.4 11.2 13.2 18.0 58.9

Rates of Visits to Physicians for ARI during Influenza Epidemic, Houston, 1983 Age




Reservoirs of Influenza Viruses • Aquatic birds • Pigs • Humans

Control Measures • Immunoprophylaxis with vaccine • Chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapy

Types of Vaccine • Inactivated, consisting of (1) wholevirus, (2) subvirion, (3) purified surface antigen. Only subvirion or purified antigen should be used in children. Any of the three can be used for adults. • Live attenuated

Influenza Vaccine, who should receive it • Persons 65 yrs or older • Persons with heart, pulmonary, renal and metabolic diseases. • Persons in nursing homes and other longterm care facilities • Persons 6 mos-18 yrs old receiving aspirin therapy

Influenza vaccine recipients-continued • Women in 2nd or 3rd trimester of pregnancy during flu season. • Household members of persons in highrisk groups • Health care workers and others providing essential community services.

Antiviral Drugs • Amantadine, rimantadine. Effective for prevention and treatment of flu A only. • Zanamivir, oseltamivir are approved for treatment of uncomplicated flu A & B; oseltamivir also approved for prophylaxis. • Prophylaxis must be continued throughout the epidemic; treatment must begin within 24 hrs of onset of illness.

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